Cognitive Biases are an examples of heuristics based on bad mental models.

Certainty Effect

"people are drawn to sure things over probabilities, even when the probability is a better choice"

Exposure Effect

"The moment we become familiar with something, we start believing we also understand it. On top of that, we also tend to like it more."

Historians as Prophets Fallacy

"An over-reliance on past data as a signal to future conditions."

Overconfidence Bias

"Believing that all plans will happen in best-case scenario circumstances."

Recency Bias

"Favoring something because it is newer."

Similarity Principle

"We trust people more when we view them as being similar or familiar."